宗教是人民的鸦片?

原文

Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.

翻译

宗教是被压抑生灵的叹息,失心世界之心,无魂境遇之魂,是人民的鸦片。

出处

《黑格尔法哲学批判(Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right)》导言,卡尔·马克思(Karl Marx,1818~1883),犹太裔德国哲学家、经济学家、社会学家、政治学家、革命理论家、新闻从业员、历史学者、革命社会主义者。被人们认为是人类历史上最有影响力的人物之一。

解读

这篇文章出版,是在1842年,当时在西方还把鸦片当作医治百病的“万灵药”,通常用作镇痛剂,对于当时的英国人而言,服食鸦片就像喝酒或抽烟一样是生活的一部分。

而在中国,这一年,第一次鸦片战争已经结束,签订了中国近代史上第一个丧权辱国的不平等条约《南京条约》。

所以,这里的鸦片的意思,并非指毒品,而更类似于酒精。另外,这里的宗教,也主要指基督教。

神之所以存在,是因为单独的个体非常弱小,而为了生存,人类必须形成组织,而为了让这个组织稳定,我们又必须遵循一致的,规范人与人之间互动方式的准则。

Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.
You shall not murder.
You shall not commit adultery.
You shall not steal.
You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.
You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.

要孝敬父母,使你在耶和华你的神赐给你的地上得享长寿。
不可杀人。
不可奸淫。
不可偷盗。
不可作假证供陷害你的邻舍。
不可贪爱你邻舍的房屋;不可贪爱你邻舍的妻子、仆婢、牛驴和他的任何东西。

《圣经》十诫第5、6、7、8、9、10条

而为了让所有人都遵守,最便捷的方式,就是创造一个至高无上的神。

You shall have no other gods before me.
除我以外,你不可有别的神。

《圣经》十诫第一条

而为了维护这样的结构,一定需要宗教组织的存在,去维护这样一个神,去宣导神所说的教义,去规范人的行为,去保持组织的稳定。在这样的过程里,一个虚幻的世界、一群共同信仰的人、一个宗教组织,就如此产生。

God’s household, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and foundation of the truth.
这个家就是永生上帝的教会,是真理的柱石和基础。

《圣经》提前3:15

So that the body of Christ may be built up.
建立教会——就是基督的身体。

《圣经》弗4:12

而在个人层面,人的种种需求在现实的世界中得不到满足,于是转而追求虚幻的世界,在这个虚幻的世界中,消解自己的痛苦,这就是宗教存在对于个人的意义。

简而言之,宗教从某种角度而言,是一种操作意识形态工具。国家借助它凝聚人心、稳定国政,社会借助它建立准则、组织自身,个人借助它理解世界、满足所需。

一方面它是个人精神的庇护所,确实能够消解人的痛苦;但在另一方面,它亦是统治者的权柄,能够助长统治者的暴虐。

我相信,宗教只是一种自然而然发生的人类文化现象,可以把它理解为人类社会的一个器官。它之所以出现,是因为它能帮助我们更好地生存;或者换一句话说,没有发展出类似于宗教这样的器官的人类组织,早就已经消失。

总结

宗教是人类社会的器官。

拓展阅读

Man makes religion, religion does not make man.

人创造了宗教,而不是宗教创造了人。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

Man is the world of man – state, society. This state and this society produce religion, which is an inverted consciousness of the world, because they are an inverted world.

人就是人的世界,就是国家、社会。国家、社会产生了宗教——即颠倒了的世界观,因为他们本身就是颠倒了的世界。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

Religion is the general theory of this world, its encyclopaedic compendium, its logic in popular form, its spiritual point d’honneur, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn complement, and its universal basis of consolation and justification.

It is the fantastic realization of the human essence since the human essence has not acquired any true reality.

宗教是这个世界的总的理论,如百科全书一般全面,逻辑通俗易懂,关系精神上的荣辱,它的热情,它的道德制裁,它的庄严补充,它是使这个不合理的世界得以心安理得的基础。

宗教把人的本质变成了幻想的现实性,因为人的本质没有真实的现实性。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

Theory also becomes a material force as soon as it has gripped the masses. Theory is capable of gripping the masses as soon as it demonstrates ad hominem, and it demonstrates ad hominem as soon as it becomes radical. To be radical is to grasp the root of the matter. But, for man, the root is man himself.

理论一经掌握群众,也会变成物质力量。理论只要击中要害,就能掌握群众;而理论只要彻底,就能击中要害。所谓彻底,就是抓住事物的根本。但人的根本就是人本身。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. To call on them to give up their illusions about their condition is to call on them to give up a condition that requires illusions.

废除作为人民幻想的幸福的宗教,也就是要求实现人民的现实的幸福。要求抛开关于自己处境的幻想,也就是要求抛开那需要幻想的处境。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

Criticism has plucked the imaginary flowers on the chain not in order that man shall continue to bear that chain without fantasy or consolation, but so that he shall throw off the chain and pluck the living flower. The criticism of religion disillusions man, so that he will think, act, and fashion his reality like a man who has discarded his illusions and regained his senses, so that he will move around himself as his own true Sun. Religion is only the illusory Sun which revolves around man as long as he does not revolve around himself.

宗教批判摘去了装饰在锁链上的那些虚幻的花朵,但并不是要人们依旧带上这些没有任何乐趣任何慰藉的锁链,而是要人扔掉它们,伸手摘取真实的花朵。宗教批判使人摆脱了幻想,使人能够作为摆脱了幻想,具有理性的人来思想,来行动,来建立自己的现实性;使他能够围绕着自身和自己现实的太阳旋转。宗教只是幻想的太阳,当人还没有开始围绕自身旋转以前,它总围绕着人而旋转。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

It is, therefore, the task of history, once the other-world of truth has vanished, to establish the truth of this world. It is the immediate task of philosophy, which is in the service of history, to unmask self-estrangement in its unholy forms once the holy form of human self-estrangement has been unmasked. Thus, the criticism of Heaven turns into the criticism of Earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law, and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics.

因此,彼岸世界的真理消逝以后,历史的任务就是确立此岸世界的真理。人的自我异化的神圣形象被揭穿以后,揭露非神圣形象中的自我异化,就成了为历史服务的哲学的迫切任务。于是对天国的批判就变成对尘世的批判,对宗教的批判就变成对法的批判,对神学的批判就变成对政治的批判。

《黑格尔法哲学批判》卡尔·马克思

参考文献:

1、《黑格尔法哲学批判》导言
2、《A Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right》
3、《〈黑格尔法哲学批判〉导言》译文商兑

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宗教是人民的鸦片?