离每个人最远的,就是他自己

原文

Of necessity we remain strangers to ourselves, we understand ourselves not, in ourselves we are bound to be mistaken, for of us holds good to all eternity the motto, “Each one is the farthest away from himself”—as far as ourselves are concerned we are not “knowers.”

翻译

我们无可避免跟自己保持陌生,我们不明白自己,我们搞不清楚自己,我们的永恒判词是:「离每个人最远的,就是他自己。」——对于我们自己,我们不是「知者」。

出处

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》,弗里德里希·威廉·尼采(德语:Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche,1844-1900),著名德国语言学家、哲学家、文化评论家、诗人、作曲家,他的著作对于宗教、道德、现代文化、哲学、以及科学等领域提出广泛的批判和讨论,被认为是西方现代哲学的开创者。

解读

查了很多资料,也依然读不懂尼采。

说实话,我并非哲学专业,对于尼采也无很深入的了解,我或许永远都无法触及尼采的那个世界,也可能永远都读不懂他留下的文字,但我仍然会被其中的只言片语所感动。

「离每个人最远的,就是他自己」,这句话击穿了我的内心,说出了我一直想要说出,却根本无从表达的话。

我相信,最好的文字,并非是给出答案,而是激发好奇,然后又流出探索与思考的空间,且不至于让我们毫无方向、一脸茫然。

就尼采的原意来说,他的主要目标是基督教的道德观念,他仔细考察了这些道德观念的起源和流变,然后发现善与恶、好与坏,这些处于我们内心世界最深处的基石,那些不言自明的坚固信条,它们并非坚不可摧,也并非一直都是如此。

我们只是被它们所控制,且毫不自知。换言之,我们根本不理解自身如何理解这个世界,然后无可避免地陷入与自己对抗的境地。

我不理解自己,对抗自己,拒绝内心的感受,压抑萌动的情感,我觉得我「应该」是那样,而非这样。

这个世界就像黑暗冰冷的漩涡,即使我能够挣扎着游出一点点,但过不了多久,当我筋疲力竭之时,它就像一个等待着猎物的怪兽,将我一口吞噬殆尽。

后来才发觉,这怪兽就是自己本身,除了自己以外,还有谁能够把我推得这么远,充斥着如此之深的苛求与怨恨。

我开始理解,人就是如此善于自我伤害的动物,我们最擅长的事情,莫过于为自己创造种种痛苦,千方百计地折磨自己。

就像不知是谁所说的,人心即地狱,而这人心,其实并非只是他人之心,更是自我之心。

这个时代,我们常常讲「认识自己」、「感受自己」、「成为自己」,也许究其原因,也许就是因为我们向外追寻太多、而向内探索太少,我们不断地将内心的对抗,转化为对外的索求,以至于内心的世界千疮百孔、渐渐枯萎。

于是与自我相处这件事情,就变得要紧了起来。毕竟,生命如船,世界如海,一艘千疮百孔的小帆船,如何渡得过这风起云涌的广阔大海。

也许我们应该,每天都抽点时间,好好与自己相处。关上灯,闭上眼,把自己当做微风,去伸手捕捉那份自在随性;把自己当做星辰,去抬头仰望那道闪耀星光;把自己当做火焰,在跳跃的火光之下,感受那份难得的温暖。

总结

触摸自己。

拓展阅读

Moreover, care should be taken not to take these ideas of “clean” and “unclean” too seriously, too broadly, or too symbolically: all the ideas of ancient man have, on the contrary, got to be understood in their initial stages, in a sense which is, to an almost inconceivable extent, crude, coarse, physical, and narrow, and above all essentially unsymbolical. The “clean man” is originally only a man who washes himself, who abstains from certain foods which are conducive to skin diseases, who does not sleep with the unclean women of the lower classes, who has a horror of blood—not more, not much more!

人们应该当心,不要立刻把“纯洁”与“不纯洁”这种观念看得太重、太广,甚至看成象征性的。古人类的所有观念都应当从一开始就被理解为一堆我们几乎不能想像的粗糙的、笨拙的、浅薄的、狭窄的、直截了当的、特别是不具代表性的东西,“纯洁的人”最初的意思不过是洗澡的人,拒绝吃某种感染腹疾的食品的人,不和肮脏的下层妇女睡觉的人,厌恶流血的人——仅此而已,岂有其它!

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

While every aristocratic morality springs from a triumphant affirmation of its own demands, the slave morality says “no” from the very outset to what is “outside itself,” “different from itself,” and “not itself: and this “no” is its creative deed. This volte-face of the valuing standpoint—this inevitable gravitation to the objective instead of back to the subjective—is typical of resentment”: the slave-morality requires as the condition of its existence an external and objective world, to employ physiological terminology, it requires objective stimuli to be capable of action at all—its action is fundamentally a reaction.

所有高贵的道德都产生于一种凯旋式的自我肯定,而奴隶道德则起始于对“外界”,对“他人”,对“非我”的否定:这种否定就是奴隶道德的创造性行动。向外界而不是向自身寻求价值——这就是一种怨恨:奴隶道德的形成总是先需要一个对立的外部环境,从物理学的角度讲,它需要外界刺激才能出场,这种行动从本质上说是对外界的反应。

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

While the aristocratic man lived in confidence and openness with himself (γενναῖος, “noble-born,” emphasises the nuance “sincere,” and perhaps also “naïf”), the resentful man, on the other hand, is neither sincere nor naïf, nor honest and candid with himself. His soul squints; his mind loves hidden crannies, tortuous paths and back-doors, everything secret appeals to him as his world, his safety, his balm; he is past master in silence, in not forgetting, in waiting, in provisional self-depreciation and self-abasement.

高贵的人在生活中充满自信和坦率(“血统高贵”强调“真诚”,或许还有“天真”),而怀恨的人既不真诚也不天真,甚至对自己都不诚实和直率,他的心灵是斜的,他的精神喜欢隐蔽的角落、秘密的路径和后门;任何隐晦的事情都能引起他的兴趣,成为他的世界、他的保障、他的安慰,他擅长于沉默、记忆、等待,擅长于暂时地卑躬屈膝、低声下气。

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

The “well-born” simply felt themselves the “happy”; they did not have to manufacture their happiness artificially through looking at their enemies, or in cases to talk and lie themselves into happiness (as is the custom with all resentful men); and similarly, complete men as they were, exuberant with strength, and consequently necessarily energetic, they were too wise to dissociate happiness from action—activity becomes in their minds necessarily counted as happiness (that is the etymology of εὖ πράττειν)—all in sharp contrast to the “happiness” of the weak and the oppressed, with their festering venom and malignity, among whom happiness appears essentially as a narcotic, a deadening, a quietude, a peace, a “Sabbath,” an enervation of the mind and relaxation of the limbs,—in short, a purely passive phenomenon.

“出身高贵者”的确感到他们自己是“幸福者”,他们不是先和他们的敌人比较,然后才来人为地造就他们的幸福,或者使人相信,或者骗人相信他们的幸福(所有充满仇恨的人都惯于此道)。他们浑身是力,因此也必然充满积极性。同样,他们知道,作为完全的、充满力量的,其结果也就应当必然是积极的人们,对于他们来说,行动不能从幸福中分离出去,他们把积极行动看成幸福的必要组成部分。所有这些都和无能者以及受压抑者阶层的“幸福”形成鲜明的对立,他们这些人感染了有毒的和仇恨的情感,这些情感很快就被消极地表现为麻醉、晕眩、安宁、自由、“安息日”、修养性情和伸展四肢等。

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

When the resentment of the aristocratic man manifests itself, it fulfils and exhausts itself in an immediate reaction, and consequently instills no venom: on the other hand, it never manifests itself at all in countless instances, when in the case of the feeble and weak it would be inevitable. An inability to take seriously for any length of time their enemies, their disasters, their misdeeds—that is the sign of the full strong natures who possess a superfluity of moulding plastic force, that heals completely and produces forgetfulness: a good example of this in the modern world is Mirabeau, who had no memory for any insults and meannesses which were practised on him, and who was only incapable of forgiving because he forgot.

当一个高贵的人感受到怨恨的时候,这怨恨会爆发,并且消耗在一种瞬间的反应中,因此也就不会起毒化作用。此外,在许多场合下,高贵者丝毫不会感到怨恨,而所有的软弱者和无能者却会毫无例外地感到怨恨。具有坚强完美之天性的人,其标志是他根本不会长期地把自己的敌人、不幸和失误看得很严重,因为他们有丰富的塑造力、修复力、治愈力,还有一种忘却力。

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

Man, the bravest animal and the one most inured to suffering, does not repudiate suffering in itself: he wills it, he even seeks it out, provided that he is shown a meaning for it, a purpose of suffering. Not suffering, but the senselessness of suffering was the curse which till then lay spread over humanity…… but any meaning is better than no meaning.

人,这个最勇敢、最惯于忍受痛苦的动物,他从根本上并不否定痛苦:他希求 痛苦,他找寻痛苦,前提是必须有人给他指明一种生存的意义,一种痛苦的目的 。是痛苦的无目的性,而非痛苦本身构成了长期压抑人类的不幸与灾难。

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

Man will wish Nothingness rather than not wish at all.

人宁愿愿望虚无,也不愿空无愿望。

《道德的谱系(The Genealogy of Morals)》弗里德里希·威廉·尼采

参考资料:
1、The Genealogy of Moral

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离每个人最远的,就是他自己